Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells. Viruses must first get into the cell before viral replication can occur. Through the generation of abundant copies of its genome and packaging these copies, the virus continues infecting new hosts. Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them. Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.
Viral Production / Replication
Viruses multiply only in living cells. The host cell must provide the energy and synthetic machinery and the low molecular-weight precursors for the synthesis of viral proteins and nucleic acids.
The virus replication occurs in seven stages, namely;
4. Transcription / mRNA production,
5. Synthesis of virus components,
6. Virion assembly and
7. Release (Liberation Stage).
Baltimore Classification System
Viruses are classed into 7 types of genes, each of which has its own families of viruses, which in turn have differing replication strategies themselves. David Baltimore, a Nobel Prize-winning biologist, devised a system called the Baltimore Classification System to classify different viruses based on their unique replication strategy. There are seven different replication strategies based on this system (Baltimore Class I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII). The seven classes of viruses are listed here briefly and in generalities.
That’s the standard textbook description of “viruses.” If you think it’s too complicated for you to wrap your head around, you’re right. It’s meant to be, by design. Fret not, dear reader; it’s all pseudoscientific nonsense. A sick fantasy that emanated from the mind of medical charlatan.
THE ROCKEFELLER UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL - 100 YEARS OF BRIDGING SCIENCE AND MEDICINE
The Birth of Modern Virology
In the 1920s virology was not an established discipline. Although researchers could study the effects of viral diseases in humans, animals, and plants, they had no criteria to describe viruses chemically--in fact, the very definition of a virus was a subject for debate! The best scientists could do was to say that, if an infectious agent passed through a fine porcelain filter that held back bacteria, then it was probably a virus ("a filterable agent"). In 1926, Thomas M. Rivers (1888-1962), director of the Rockefeller Hospital, made a bold statement about the essential nature of viruses that set the course of virology for decades to come. He said: "Viruses appear to be obligate parasites in the sense that their reproduction is dependent on living cells."
In stating that viruses needed living cells in order to replicate, Rivers was contradicting many workers in the field, including Simon Flexner, the director of the Rockefeller Institute, who claimed to have isolated and cultivated the polio virus in a cell-free medium. But Rivers had both laboratory and clinical experience on which to base his view. When, in 1926, the Society of American Bacteriologists invited him to organize a symposium on viruses, and deliver a lecture, he reviewed the body of knowledge on viruses. Several observations on the problem of growing viruses in the laboratory led him to his conclusion: the difficulty of cultivating viruses on artificial media could not be explained; although viruses were small, size should not prevent their cultivation; viruses were not particularly delicate or susceptible to destruction during laboratory procedures; nor had any viruses been found multiplying free in nature. His synthesis of the state of virology was published in a landmark book, Filterable Viruses, in 1928. Rivers' hypothesis led to many advances in the culturing and characterization of viruses that cause human disease.
Thomas M. Rivers received the BA from Emory College in 1909 and the MD from The Johns Hopkins University Medical School in 1915. After an internship and residency in pediatrics, he joined the Army in 1918, serving on commissions with the U.S. Army Medical Corps that investigated outbreaks of pneumonia and empyema. He returned to Johns Hopkins for a research appointment in 1919, and joined the Rockefeller Institute Hospital in 1922. In 1937 Rivers became director of the hospital, a position he held until 1953, when he became Vice President and Director of the Institute. He retired in 1955. Rivers was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. He served as president of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the American Association of Immunologists, the Society of American Bacteriologists, and the Third International Congress for Microbiology, and received honorary degrees from Emory University, the University of Rochester, the University of Chicago, and the Rockefeller Institute.
Rivers TM. Filterable Viruses: A critical review. J Bacteriol, 1927, 14:217-258
Rivers TM. Some general aspects of pathological conditions caused by Filterable Viruses. Am J Pathol, 1928, 4:91
Rivers, TM, ed. Filterable Viruses. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1928
Horsfall FL Jr. Thomas Milton Rivers (1888-1962): A Biographical Memoir. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1965, 38:262-294
Benison S. Tom Rivers: Reflections on a Life in Medicine and Science. An Oral History Memoir. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1967
http://centennial.rucares.org/index.php ... n_Virology
"In stating that viruses needed living cells in order to replicate, Rivers was contradicting many workers in the field, including Simon Flexner, the director of the Rockefeller Institute, who claimed to have isolated and cultivated the polio virus in a cell-free medium. But Rivers had both laboratory and clinical experience on which to base his view."
How marvelous. Rockefeller University Hospital finally admitting that 1) Rockefeller Institute’s founding director’s ridiculous claim was unfounded 2) Rivers’ view was based on his “laboratory and clinical experience”, not proof.
Virologists/immunologists have been trying to prove Rivers right ever since; failing miserably every step of the way.
"After an internship and residency in pediatrics, he joined the Army in 1918, serving on commissions with the U.S. Army Medical Corps that investigated outbreaks of pneumonia and empyema."
1918 Pandemic (H1N1 virus)
The 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic in recent history. It was caused by an H1N1 virus with genes of avian origin. Although there is not universal consensus regarding where the virus originated, it spread worldwide during 1918-1919. In the United States, it was first identified in military personnel in spring 1918. It is estimated that about 500 million people or one-third of the world’s population became infected with this virus. The number of deaths was estimated to be at least 50 million worldwide with about 675,000 occurring in the United States.
Mortality was high in people younger than 5 years old, 20-40 years old, and 65 years and older. The high mortality in healthy people, including those in the 20-40 year age group, was a unique feature of this pandemic. While the 1918 H1N1 virus has been synthesized and evaluated, the properties that made it so devastating are not well understood. With no vaccine to protect against influenza infection and no antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that can be associated with influenza infections, control efforts worldwide were limited to non-pharmaceutical interventions such as isolation, quarantine, good personal hygiene, use of disinfectants, and limitations of public gatherings, which were applied unevenly.
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resour ... -h1n1.html
We know how reliable the CDC’s numbers can be. Although we don’t know where (or even how) the flu “virus” originated we’re positive that it was a “virus.” I’m sure the smallpox vaccine had nothing to do with it.
In 1938, Jonas Salk and Thomas Francis developed the first vaccine against flu viruses. This first flu vaccine protected the U.S. military forces against the flu during World War II. Dr. Salk used his experience with influenza vaccine to develop an effective polio vaccine in 1952.
https://www.emedicinehealth.com/flu_vac ... cle_em.htm
And the flu vaccine had nothing to do with polio.
And the polio vaccine had nothing to do with Guillain-Barre syndrome, Hand-foot-and-mouth disease, Chronic fatigue syndrome, etc.