Einstein and other gods of science

Historical insights & thoughts about the world we live in - and the social conditioning exerted upon us by past and current propaganda.

Re: Einstein and other gods of science

Unread postby ICfreely on Sun Jan 13, 2019 7:49 pm

Einstein's Medical Friends and Their Influence on His Life

S. SRI KANTHA

5-16-305 Tsukimicho, Fukuroi City, Shizuoka 437-01, Japan (Tel: & Fax: (+81) 538 49 2274)

Abstract -- Albert Einstein had at least six medical friends who influenced his thoughts. In each period (Munich, Switzerland, Berlin and Princeton) of his life, one could identify the medically qualified individuals with whom Einstein was in close contact. These include Max Talmey, Heinrich Zangger, George Nicolai, Hans MLihsam, Janos Plesch and Gustav Bucky. They probably enriched Einstein's life and thoughts significantly by being mentors, confidants, intellectual sparring partners and research collaborators to him. With MLihsam, Einstein published a paper in a German medical journal. In collaboration with Bucky, he also received a US patent for a light-intensity self-adjusting camera in 1936.

Introduction

While engaged in studying the life of physicist Albert Einstein (1--4), I was amused to find that he had at least six medical friends who were close to him. It is not unusual for a scientist, who specialized in physical sciences, to have friends trained in a medical discipline. But, in Einstein's case, this observation may have some significance. Since this aspect has not been explored by any of the Einstein scholars so far, I present my thoughts on the influence of these medical friends on Einstein's life.

Biographical sketches

The table lists six medical friends who influenced Einstein's life. The biographical sketches provided below about each of them are arranged in the chronological order of their acquaintance with Einstein.

1. Max Talmey (1869 – 1941)

Thus, Talmey deserves the credit for introducing Einstein to the world of science. He matriculated in 1889 from Munich University and eventually emi- grated to the USA at the beginning of this century to practise [sic] medicine in New York. His own popular book, The Relativity Theory Simplified, and the Formative Years of its Inventor, was published in 1932.

2. Heinrich Zangger (1874-1957)

Zangger was Einstein's friend in Zurich, who held the position of Director of the Institute for Forensic Medicine at the University of Zurich. Zangger first met Einstein in 1905 according to Highfield and Carter (9): 'to discuss Brownian motion, and [he] gradually came to act as a personal and professional confidant'. He was also instrumental in bringing Einstein back to Zurich from Prague in 1913. When not residing in Zurich, Einstein corresponded with Zangger to express his thoughts and solicit advice on various issues affecting his life. Since he lived in Zurich, Zangger also served as a 'substitute father' to Einstein's two sons, when Einstein was living apart from them, following separation from his first wife Mileva Maric in 1914 (9).

3. George Nicolai (1874-1964)

An outspoken German pacifist and a professor of physiology at the University of Berlin from 1910- 1915, in late 1914, Nicolai coauthored with Einstein a manifesto entitled Manifesto to Europeans, espousing pacifism. This manifesto, which asked the intellectuals to join forces in demanding a just peace and to work towards the establishment of a united Europe, was a rebuttal to the Manifesto to the Civilized World signed by 93 German intellectuals, among whom Wilhelm Rrntgen [sic], Ernst Haeckel, Paul Ehrlich and Max Planck were giants in science of that era. The manifesto coauthored by Nicolai and Einstein was signed by only two other colleagues, though circulated among all the professors employed at the University of Berlin, and many had expressed their sympathy with the document. During World War I, Nicolai continued his campaign and published a tract entitled Die Biologie des Krieges (1916; with a Foreword by Romain Rolland). An American translation of this work appeared in 1918 as The Biology of War. Nicolai paid the price for his pacifism and was ...'dishonored and made to work as an orderly in a field hospital' (8), and ...'during the closing months of the war [Nicolai] made a sensational escape from Germany by plane' (6). In 1922, he also produced a movie entitled Der Einstein Film, on the theory of relativity (11).

4. Hans Miihsam (1876-1957)

Mtthsam was a Berlin-born medical doctor who, after graduation in 1900, established a private practice in Berlin. According to Pais (7), Einstein first met Mtihsam in 1915 which led to 'Sunday hikes during which they discussed physics and also medical and biological problems'. Einstein published a paper with Mtihsam in 1923, related to the experimental determination of the size of pores in filters (12). This is the only research paper of Einstein's which appeared in a medical journal. Pais (7) also mentions that 'Mtihsam became Einstein's closest confidant in the Berlin days'. Eventually Mtihsam moved to Israel to escape from the Nazis and died there.

5. Janos Plesch (1875-?)

Plesch was a Hungarian-born medical doctor, who built a successful medical practice in Berlin. Einstein came to know Plesch in 1919, when the latter attended to Einstein's mother Pauline Einstein during her terminal illness. Then, for more than a quarter of a century, they remained close friends. In 1928, when Einstein collapsed during his trip to Zuoz, Switzerland, it was Plesch who diagnosed inflammation in the walls of Einstein's heart and guided the physicist to recovery. Plesch also dedicated his book, Physiology and Pathology of the Heart and Blood Vessels to Einstein. In his autobiography, Plesch had written, 'It has always struck me as singular that the marvelous memory of Einstein for scientific matters does not extend to other fields'. Einstein himself agreed with this assessment.

6. Gustav Bucky (1880-1963)

This Leipzig-born physician friend of Einstein first came to know the physicist while treating his step- daughter Ilse Einstein. Bucky was a specialist in radiology. Like Einstein, he also emigrated to the USA and settled in New York. Einstein enjoyed Bucky's friendship at social and academic levels and collaborated with him to receive a US patent for a light-intensity self-adjusting camera (a photoelectric device) in 1936 (13,14). Writing in the early 1940s, Frank (5) observed .... 'even today he (Einstein) is often in the company of his friend Dr Bucky of New York, a well-known physician and specialist in the construction of X-ray machines, and together they have devised a mechanism for regulating automatically the exposure time of a photographic film depending on the illumination on it. Einstein's interest in such inventions depends not on its practical utility but on getting at the trick of the thing'.



Conclusion

I conclude that, during each major period of his life (which spanned Germany, Switzerland and the USA), Einstein had close friends in the medical disciplines. Apart from providing routine diagnostic services and guidance on health problems, they served Einstein in multiple roles as mentors, confidants, intellectual sparring partners and research collaborators.

https://www1.gifu-u.ac.jp/~srikanth/srikantha_library/file/Einstein/Med%20Hypotheses%201996%20E%20med%20friends.pdf



I conclude that, it has always struck me as singular that the “marvelous” memory of St. Einstein for scientific matters does indeed extend to the medical field.
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Re: Einstein and other gods of science

Unread postby ICfreely on Mon Jan 14, 2019 1:24 am

But, again, please don't take my word for it. I submit the following excerpts from Dr. Hom's (someone with much more impressive credentials and better written communication skills than yours truly) enlightening article for your perusal.

Radiology: Combining Quantum Theory, Medicine, and Artistic Vision

More than any other profession, radiologists and radiologic technologists put theoretical quantum physics to practical use to improve the health and lives of their patients. Although quantum light theory can explain everything from the tiniest subatomic particles to immense galaxy-devouring black holes, radiologists apply this technology at the human level to diagnose and treat disease and thus alleviate human suffering.

More than 100 years ago in 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered a form of radiation which had strange new properties. These new rays were so unique and mysterious that he named them “X-rays”, for the unknown. Although often described as a fortuitous discovery, chance favors the prepared mind, and Roentgen’s astute observations back then are still accurate today.

For the very first time, doctors (without using a scalpel) could see beyond the skin surface of their patients and peer deep inside the human body. It was later found that X-rays were a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter and with energies greater than visible light. Subsequent research into particle theory by Albert Einstein and others led to the physics principles that not only laid the groundwork for state-of-the-art medical imaging but also changed the understanding of our entire universe, from the mechanics of the atom to the largest objects in the universe. In 1901, Roentgen received the very first Nobel Prize awarded in physics, an indication that his discovery of a form of invisible light was the beginning of a remarkable scientific journey.

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity soon followed and would explain the space time continuum and the equivalence of mass and energy. Throughout his brilliant career, Einstein was fascinated and preoccupied with the strange properties of light. Einstein once said, “For the rest of my life I will reflect on what light is.” His concept of special relativity came to him when he was riding his bicycle towards a lamp post. He realized that the speed of light was the only constant for all observers and that the classic Newtonian measurements of mass, distance, and time were all subject to change at velocities approaching the speed of light. Einstein’s relativity means that the science fiction adventures of galaxy-hopping space travel in Star Trek and Star Wars are mere fantasy. The vast distances of space and the universal speed limit of light make intergalactic travel too impractical. If a hypothetical space craft approaches the speed of light, time slows, length compresses, the mass of the space craft increases, and impossibly high amounts of energy are required. At a certain point, the space craft stops accelerating, despite greater and greater energy input.

A result of Einstein’s special theory of relativity has been called the most famous equation in all of science. Energy (E) equals mass (m) multiplied by the speed of light squared (c2), that is E=mc2. This simple equation, which states that energy and mass are interchangeable quantities, is often misinterpreted as the formula of the atomic bomb. The principle of the atomic bomb is bombardment of a uranium atom with a neutron that splits the uranium atom into two smaller atoms and more neutrons that trigger a fission chain reaction. Although tremendous energy is released, it is the energy of internuclear binding forces, and there is no appreciable change in mass. A much better demonstration of E=mc2 is the physics of positron emission tomography (PET scanning), in which an electron and positron (the antiparticle of an electron) annihilate each other and convert their masses into pure light energy, consisting of photons traveling in opposite directions. This light is detected and calculated as a three dimensional image of the patient. Einstein was another founder of radiology because his theory of the Photoelectric Effect (published in 1905 and awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921) explained how X-rays interact with matter. This theory also showed that light was absorbed and emitted in discreet packets of energy, leading to the Quantum Theory revolution in physics.

Quantum Theory
...
This finding was unsettling for physicists who strove for precise measurements, because precision was not possible at the atomic and subatomic levels. Heisenberg showed that every experiment (and radiologic examination) is subject to limitation. Einstein objected to this inherent fuzziness, stating that “God does not play dice with the Universe.”

The Doppler Effect

Using Doppler ultrasound, a technologist can screen for: the risk of stroke from carotid artery stenosis, renal arterial causes of hypertension, abdominal aortic aneurysms, peripheral vascular disease, deep vein thrombosis, portal vein thrombosis and varices, and post-catheterization pseudo-aneurysms. Countless lives have been saved or improved because of a phenomenon originally observed in starlight. Doppler’s idea extends well beyond the sonography suite and even tells us about the origins of our universe. Edwin Hubble demonstrated that all objects observed in deep space have a Doppler red-shifted velocity that is proportional to the object’s distance from the Earth and all other interstellar bodies. This tells us that our universe is expanding and supports the theory that the universe was created by the Big Bang, which occurred about 13.7 billion years ago.

Old Master Painters
Artists such as Rembrandt and Vermeer (17th century) were adept at depicting light to create the illusion of realistic three dimensional subjects on two dimensional canvases. These artists studied the interaction of light with their models and understood visual perception of subtle shading and light to make their artwork dramatic and convincing. Rembrandt van Rijn’s famous portraits and self-portraits displayed skill with light source positioning and intensity, later duplicated by movie director Cecil B DeMille who coined the term “Rembrandt lighting,” a technique that is still used today by portrait photographers…Experienced radiologic technologists use artistic vision when they create radiographs. By positioning and framing their subjects and by adjusting contrast and exposure, each image can be a work of art, not only pleasing to the eye but also containing a wealth of information.


Light as the Medium for Medical Imaging
Light, as visual information, is portrayed in art. Light also is the medium for medical imaging, whether in the form of a backlit film, cathode ray tube monitor, liquid crystal display screen, or plasma monitor. The eye is our most complex and highly evolved sense organ, capable of detecting subtle changes in light and color, and transferring this information (via the optic nerves and optic tracts) to the visual cortex of our occipital lobes. However, what distinguishes artists and seasoned radiology professionals from other people is post-processing (i.e., the thinking that occurs after perceiving visual data). Much of science and medicine is about logic, language, analysis, and categorization (left brain functions). However, visual processing (the artistic eye) is about conceptualization, spatial orientation, and pattern recognition (right brain functions). These right brain skills are harder to teach and measure but are just as important in radiology. With the rapid increases in digital image resolution and in the number of multi-planar images involved with each case, developing the right brain is crucial to make sense of this visual information overload. Knowingly or unknowingly, seasoned radiologists develop the right side of their brains through the experience of viewing thousands of medical images. This “artistic eye” can be further enhanced in radiologists and radiologic technologists who appreciate the techniques used by great artists. Or better yet, they can train their right brains by creating original art themselves.

Conclusion
Radiologists and radiologic technologists use light technology and artistic vision in their daily work. They sense subtle shades, recognize patterns, and use symmetry and balance to detect abnormalities. When this artistic skill is applied in combination with an appreciation for the underlying physics that created the images, a thorough knowledge of human anatomy, and an understanding of the pathophysiology of disease, they serve their patients by providing timely diagnosis and excellent medical care.

Dr. Mark Hom is a Johns Hopkins University trained biologist, an award-winning medical illustrator, an interventional radiologist, an educator of young doctors, an Elsevier author, and an avid fitness cyclist...

http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/radiology-quantum-theory-medicine/
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Re: Einstein and other gods of science

Unread postby ICfreely on Sun Jan 20, 2019 6:39 am

[Admin Approval by SCS: Given my admonition this morning, ICfreely sent the following to me via PM asking for pre- clearance to post this here. I have reviewed it, and find that it is topic related and advances the research.]

ICfreely wrote:
A much better demonstration of E=mc2 is the physics of positron emission tomography (PET scanning), in which an electron and positron (the antiparticle of an electron) annihilate each other and convert their masses into pure light energy, consisting of photons traveling in opposite directions.



Heisenberg showed that every experiment (and radiologic examination) is subject to limitation. Einstein objected to this inherent fuzziness, stating that “God does not play dice with the Universe.”



Common Causes of False Positive F18 FDG PET/CT Scans in Oncology

ABSTRACT
PET/CT is a common imaging modality used in the evaluation of oncology patients. While being extremely sensitive to identifying sights of malignancy F18FDG is very non-specific. We attempted to provide a brief review of some of the more common processes that a nuclear radiology physician may encounter in daily clinical practice that could result in a false positive diagnosis with F18FDG PET/CT. A fundamental understanding of the limitations of this technology by the interpreting physician is necessary to avoid making inaccurate diagnosis and potentially limiting important treatments for our patients.

INTRODUCTION
Radiologic imaging provides an important component to both the diagnosis and management of oncology patients…It is also useful to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy following treatment (MNCDM, 2007).(See Fig. 2)

PET/CT offers a unique approach to the diagnosis and staging of malignancy by exploiting the biochemical differences between benign and malignant cells Kostakoglu et al., 2003). FDG is an analog of glucose and is used as a marker of glucose metabolism. It is taken up in both tumor cells and cells involved in other pathologic conditions due to an overall increase in the number of glucose transporter proteins and increased intracellular hexokinase and phosphofructokinase levels, which promote glycolysis.


DISCUSSION
FDG is not only a cancer specific imaging agent, false positive results may be observed with benign diseases. False positive results are commonly observed in areas of active inflammation or infection (Gupta et al., 20000), with a reported false positive rate of 13% and false negative rate of 9% (Alavi et al., 2002). Inflammatory cells (neutrophils and activated macrophages) at the sites of inflammation or infection will show increased FDG accumulation (Alavi et al., 2002). These false-positive areas of metabolic activity have the potential for significant morbidity and mortality if not accurately recognized.

Brown adipose tissue has been reported to be observed in 2-4% of patients and is especially common to be observed in women and children during cold weather months. This tissue is responsible for cold induced and diet induced thermogenesis. Mitochondria in brown adipose tissue exclusively express the thermogenic protein, and F18 FDG uptake in this hypermetabloic brown fat can occur (Kostakoglu et al., 2003)…
Multiple nonspecific infectious/ inflammatory processes can cause increased FDG uptake and result in a false positive diagnosis for malignancy on PET/CT...

Many noninfectious inflammatory granulomatous processes can also lead to localized and disseminated inflammatory processes throughout the body that may result in focal areas of increased metabolism on PET/CT examinations resulting in a false positive diagnosis

Numerous iatrogenic may result in areas of false positive increased metabolic activity on FDG PET/CT exams. This includes increased metabolically activity resulting from injections such as diffuse muscular uptake following administration of insulin prior to the injection of FDG (Bunyaviroch and Coleman, 2005). Following the administration of colonystimulating factors, diffuse increased bone uptake has also been described (Yao et al., 1995). Post surgical changes will result in areas of increased FDG uptake including areas of prior biopsies, sites of catheter insertions, and sites of other drainage tube insertions (El-Haddad et. al, 2004). (See Fig. 7) Some of the most common iatrogenic causes of uptake on PET/CT include the response from radiation with development of pneumonitis/fibrosis, as well as talc pleurodesis (Shreve et al., 1999).

Benign tumors that result in intense FDG accumulation on PET/CT examination have been described, and these should be recognized at potential causes for a false positive diagnosis…

Correlation with the patient’s history and other imaging modalities may be necessary to suggest the correct diagnosis. Most importantly, long term stability will be seen in all of these lesions ensuring that they are benign processes. These lesions are usually misdiagnosed as malignant processes and will undergo biopsy or resection (Shreve et al., 1999; Libby et al., 2002; Yao et al., 1995).

CONCLUSION
Physicians interpreting PET/CT examinations must understand that accumulation of FDG only indicates enhanced cellular metabolism, irrespective of the nature of the cells. Areas of activated macrophages as well as metabolically active carcinomas will all accumulate FDG. Due to the limited specificity of FDG-PET/CT in excluding malignancy, FDG positive lymph nodes and metabolically active masses require histologic assessment to avoid incorrect diagnosis and potentially limiting treatment options for patients. The absences of FDG accumulation in lesions and lymph nodes is highly predictive for the absence of active disease, but false negative results can also be observed in malignancies with low metabolic activities… Overall the FDG PET/CT is a powerful new diagnostic tool that has made a significant contribution to the diagnosis and management of oncology patients.

http://www.scielo.br/pdf/babt/v50nspe/a04v50ns.pdf.



So, among other things, “lesions are usually misdiagnosed as malignant processes and will undergo biopsy or resection” and such iatrogenic procedures “will [also] result in areas of increased FDG uptake” which may possibly lead to more false positive results. However, if you’re “lucky” enough to avoid a false positive FDG-PET/CT exam result, then you will get the proper chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy you so desperately need.

Now I’m no “Einstein” but that sounds like a bunch of weird zionce to me. Could it be that maybe, just maybe, the body's use of glucose (in areas of inflammations, tumors, etc.) is indicative of the importance of glucose in the healing process? It's a wonder how people managed to live long healthy lives prior to this “marvelous” medical technology.


P.S.

The histologic assessment of "cancer" is an art form unto itself.
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Re: Einstein and other gods of science

Unread postby ICfreely on Thu Jan 31, 2019 2:21 am

I’ll refrain from commenting on these zeros of the mind in this post.

Marx, Freud & Einstein: Heroes of the Mind

Corinne Maier; Anne Simon, illus.
Review by AJ Frost

In the reactionary years of Argentina’s Guerra Sucia—“Dirty War”—the most notable political prisoner being held by the oppressive junta was Jacobo Timerman, a Jewish newspaper editor and vocal dissident. Originally a refugee from Ukraine, Timerman was among the nearly 30,000 “disappeared” individuals who caught the ire of Argentinian military leaders for his outspoken views against the right-wing government and his fervent support of Zionism. He was incarcerated and tortured. In his memoir Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number, Timerman recounted one notable exchange with his brutal, anti-Semitic tormentors:

“Argentina has three main enemies: Karl Marx, because he tried to destroy the Christian concept of society; Sigmund Freud, because he tried to destroy the Christian concept of the family; and Albert Einstein, because he tried to destroy the Christian concept of time and space.”

In the recently collected comics anthology Marx, Freud & Einstein: Heroes of the Mind , French psychoanalyst, public intellectual, and writer Corinne Maier and artist Anne Simon explore the complex epistemologies and private struggles of Marx, Freud, and Einstein. Originally a set of three separate works, Maier and Simon venture deep into the gray matter of these men, revealing what made them tick and what gave them the inspiration to seek alternatives to prevailing European dogmas, and ultimately alter the higher limits of human potential.

https://www.jewishbookcouncil.org/book/marx-freud-einstein-heroes-of-the-mind



Beginnings in Jewish Philosophy - Meyer Levin (1971)

Has the world gone beyond religion?

The Secular approach
…Not long ago a slogan swept the intellectual world: God is dead. It was really a reaction to a world of atomic warfare, race riots, drug addiction, hunger, and assassination. It meant that God was “dead” or absent in mankind. That was the hopeless side of the slogan. What some of the more atheistic people meant was that the very idea of God was a dead issue, and that Communism or other social movements could take over and accomplish the same ends that religion has sought in God, that men could arrive at social justice without the idea of God.

The failure of the mechanistic method

If religion must live in a world where scientific doubts have been raised by Copernicus, Darwin, Marx, Freud and Einstein, then secularism lives in a world that has seen Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Babi Yar, Sharpeville, Selma, Detroit, and Watts –to name only the most obvious cases. This is no century in which to appeal to the natural goodness of men.

The sanctification of life

We may again consider the view of Einstein, for in our scientific age he is, to many, the very symbol of rational idealism.

How shall we live with others in the world?

In speaking of the “intoxicated joy and amazement at the beauty and grandeur of the world,” is Einstein so far from Hasidism?

What can the Ten Commandments teach us today?

Ordinances –and interpretations

Freud sought to understand the ills of man through the basic relationship to mother and father, from infancy; he has shown us how deep, instinctual drives can create a hostility toward one parent or the other. If these problems are so deep in us, perhaps they deserve the emphasis of a Commandment. Perhaps our ancient tribal ways were based on such an intuition.

The Other

The grain of truth is of course that Marx, Einstein, and Freud were all of Jewish descent and that none practiced formal Judaism. But the whole truth is different. The impression left by such a statement is that since the greatest Jews of modern times departed from Judaism, all intelligent Jews should do the same. The plain fact is, of course, that Karl Marx was born into a converted family, his father having adopted Christianity for career reasons. Marx never discarded Judaism since he was not raised as a Jew. While Einstein and Freud did not go around wearing yarmulkes, both were active Jews all their lives, and thought and wrote profoundly on the subject of Judaism. Freud delivered his very first paper on psychoanalysis to his B’nai B’rith club in Vienna; he lived in Jewish circles; his son was a member of a Zionist youth group; and as we shall see, there was a strong connection between psychoanalytic discoveries and mystical Judaism. Einstein, whose views we have already quoted, actually campaigned with Chaim Weizmann in America for the Zionist cause, and was attached to Judaism all his life, though as a scientist he classified the early Mosaic phase as a cult religion. Both of these men were undeniably good Jews, attached to their tradition, even if “doubters.” Karl Marx, on the other hand, wrote distorted, vitriolic descriptions of Jews as greedy exploiters. He unfortunately started the Communist movement in an anti-Semitic direction which it has never entirely lost…

https://books.google.com/books?id=LvyjtGwqsQoC&pg=PA174&lpg=PA174&dq=Karl+Marx+++Sigmund+Freud++Albert+Einstein&source=bl&ots=slcKArONCN&sig=ACfU3U16SPJgk3VWhwdIasfIuYWBvNhRoA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi7xI7ci5XgAhWLHjQIHU8SDx04FBDoATABegQICRAB#v=onepage&q=Karl%20Marx%20%20%20Sigmund%20Freud%20%20Albert%20Einstein&f=false



Karl Marx Is the World’s Most Influential Scholar
When compared on equal footing, Marx stands out above the crowd
By Colin Schultz
smithsonian.com
November 6, 2013

How do you judge an academic? Can you compare scholars from different fields on equal footing? Whose work had the bigger impact down field, Albert Einstein or Ada Lovelace?

These seem like impossible questions to answer, but as reported by Nature, a team of information scientists out of Indiana University, Bloomington, think they’ve found a way. And, according to them, the most influential scholar is… Karl Marx.

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/karl-marx-is-the-worlds-most-influential-scholar-180947581/



Abraham, Moses, David and Solomon Might Get Cut From the AP World History Curriculum
Critics have noted that the change appears to shift the focus largely to Western history
JTA
and
Charles Dunst
Jun 26, 2018 1:55 PM

Going by this list, students in the course would no longer study 40 percent of the history’s influential people. Not surprisingly, among those missing the cutoff on the Time list are some of the most important figures in Jewish history: Abraham, Moses, David and Solomon (although some feature more prominently in the course than others).

(If you’re curious about the Jewish figures who still make the 1450 cutoff on the Time list, they’re Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein and Gregory Pincus, co-inventor of the birth control pill.)

https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/abraham-moses-and-david-might-get-cut-from-the-ap-world-history-class-1.6216779


Einstein - philosopher, saint, communist, One Worlder, scientist, plagiarist, Zionist
http://mailstar.net/einstein.html
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Re: Einstein and other gods of science

Unread postby ICfreely on Sun Feb 10, 2019 4:12 pm

Although I highly disagree and have many points of contention with the author I nevertheless applaud him for his scholastic efforts. There are lots of gems to be gleaned from his dissertation.


From Sin to Science: The Cancer Revolution of the Nineteenth Century - Lawrence Koblenz (2003)

ABSTRACT

This dissertation analyzes the critical importance of the late nineteenth century to the development of a novel, radical approach to cancer that continues into the twenty-first century. From the 1870s to the 1890s, physicians and the public came to understand cancer in an entirely new light, founded upon the application of scientific principles, methods, and instruments to cancer medicine as well as upon a major change in the social perception of the disease. Cancer as it was conceptualized, diagnosed, and treated prior to this revolutionary transformation will be explored. The birth of cellular pathology will set the stage for the transition of cancer from a macroscopic, eponymous malady to a microscopic, cellular disease.

The founding of an institution devoted solely to the care of cancer patients and the investigation of the disease will illustrate how societal beliefs, combined with personal tragedy, philanthropy, and medical expertise, legitimized the disease and fostered cancer research.

The histories of the cancers of two Presidents of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant and Grover Cleveland, who were diagnosed with the disease only nine years apart during these critical years, will be compared and contrasted for the insights they provide on this great transformation.

The scientific underpinnings of these changes will be examined from their roots in physics, chemistry, and biology to their applications in microscopy, anesthesia, and antisepsis. Modern cancer will be shown to be based firmly on the medical microscope and the advent of scientific surgery that occurred in the late nineteenth century.



CELL THEORY

People have absolutely no conception of the progress made by the natural sciences in the last thirty years. For physiology the decisive factors have been, firstly the tremendous development of organic chemistry, and secondly, the microscope, which has been properly used only for the last twenty years….The main thing which has revolutionised the whole of physiology and for the first time made comparative physiology possible is the discovery of the cell—in plants by Schleiden and in animals by Schwann. Everything is a cell. -Friedrich Engels to Karl Marx, July 14, 1858

The structural and functional idea of the cell was the theoretical foundation for the development of modern cancer. Cell theory, nurtured by the post-Listerian microscope, helped convert medicine from an empirical series of observations into a scientific investigation of human form and action. The physiological cell, as well as its pathological anomaly, fostered new methods of thinking about disease in general and cancer specifically. In addition, the theory of the cell emphasized a localistic view of disease, hastening the demise of constitutionalism and radically altering the practitioner’s conception of cancer. Archaic methods for the inspection of the human body and its diseases tended to favor notions of constitutionalism; cell-based microscopy boosted ideas of localism. The microscope revealed, as in other aspects of life, that the devil was in the details.


The Life and Times of the Father of Cancer Microscopy

Johannes Müller, not long after the final defeat of Napoleon I, came to the vibrant city of Berlin. He was one of many intellectuals with varied interests to gravitate to the capital city of Prussia. Several, like Müller, hailed from Bonn—Schwann, Jakob Henle, and the sharp-witted Karl Marx. Müller and his circle went to study medicine and, in particular, anatomy. Pathological anatomy, as noted in Chapter 1, was the brightest star of medicine, and Berlin had become the center of the pathological universe. Two inventions—one technological, the other conceptual—propelled Müller and his famous students into the forefront of medical history. The first was the development of the aspherical, achromatic compound lens system by Joseph Jackson Lister and others. The second was the advance of cell theory.

https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/doi/10.7916/D8K07BJ8/download



Presidents, First Ladies and “benevolent” philanthropists going public with their “personal battles” have been instrumental in legitimizing diseases and raising awareness for treatment research.

For example:


Her Body: Making Mammograms Less Miserable
By Barbara Kantrowitz
On 10/1/07 at 8:00 PM

In 1974, First Lady Betty Ford saved the lives of millions :rolleyes: of woman [sic] with a simple act: she spoke openly about the fact that she had breast cancer and encouraged women to get mammograms, then a relatively new test. At the time breast cancer was one of those unspeakable scourges; even saying the words in ordinary conversation was considered somehow improper. After Mrs. Ford tore down this curtain of secrecy, women's health advocates took up the challenge of convincing women to get regular mammograms in order to find malignant breast cancer cells early, when there's the greatest chance of stemming their spread. Their efforts were astoundingly successful. By 2000 more than 70 percent of American women over 40 reported getting regular screening. :(

https://www.newsweek.com/her-body-making-mammograms-less-miserable-103231


Not So Simple: The Breast Cancer Stories of Betty Ford and Happy Rockefeller
By Barron H. Lerner, Contributor
Professor of medicine, New York University School of Medicine; Author, 'The Good Doctor'
09/26/2014 10:44am ET | Updated November 26, 2014

Just as Betty Ford's survival was not due to early detection, Rockefeller's survival (she turned 88 in June 2014) unlikely resulted from the prophylactic removal of her second breast. Early detection of breast and other cancers remains a complicated and controversial subject.

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/not-so-simple-the-breast_b_5733402



The Deity is also in the details for those with eyes that see and ears that hear…
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